When we asked about first economist then Adam Smith is named by all people. But even before Adam Smith, Kautilya had given the idea of economics in India. Kautilya wrote a book titled ‘Arthshastram‘ in Sanskrit, expressing his economic ideas. Kautilya has used the scriptures, Purano, Upanishado as well as the writings of Manu, Shukracharya, Yagnavalkya etc. in his book. In the economics of Kautilya he does not study the wealth of nations, nor discusses its nature and causes. But he gives such advice to the king. That the power or wealth of the State should be as well as maintain and increased. Thus, the economics given by Kautilya is not ‘pure and complete economics’. But it is a blend of economics, politics, ethics and theology. Kautilya’s economic ideas can be called ‘political economics’. The sections on the administrative system, described by Kautilya, provide important ideas on taxation, the “Fourth Hierarchy,” as well as the seven organs of state power that include the swami (lord), Amatya (committee members of state administration), Durg (fort), rajkosh (treasure of state), janpad (people of state), dand (fines) and mitro (friends). Which he had never mentioned before in any of the ancient Indian political literature, and I have addressed these matters in most of my research papers. Have tried to light it.