Comparative Study

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Human right awareness: a comparative study of urban and rural areas women victims of domestic violence

Sunil S. Jadav

DIP: 18.02.006/20160101

DOI: 10.25215/2455/0101006

Received: January 05, 2016; Revision Received: February 04, 2016; Accepted: March 25, 2016

Abstract

Main purpose of the research is to study the human right awareness among the women victims of domestic violence so investigator selected two groups one is urban areas women and other is rural areas women, both groups have 360 women. In each group has 180 urban areas and other one groups has 180 rural areas women victims of domestic violence. Data were collected from North and Central Gujarat. Scale was use for data collection is personal datasheet and human right awareness scale developed by Vishal Sood and Arti Anand (2012). 2x2x2 factorial design was used and data were analysis by ANOVA test. Result show that, the urban areas women possess high human right awareness than the rural areas woman. The non-government institute related women possess more human right awareness than the government institute related women. There is not any significant impact of education level of the women victims of domestic violence on their human right awareness. There is no significant interaction effect of types of area and types of institute, types of area and education level on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence. There is significant interaction effect of types of institute and education level also significant interaction effect of types of area, types of institute and education level on the human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence.

INTRODUCTION:

Since the growth of Civilisation, Human Rights exists in the society in one or another form, which may be authenticated by different religions or different thinkers from time to time or from the society itself , through some major incidents and events in the Society and finally at State and National level. Specific format of Human Rights was developed in year 1948 at International level. Basically, Human development is a source of Human Rights which may be in a form of religion, religious customs or traditions.

The Human rights are the integral par t of nature of human being, which is essential to live as human being, for the individual to develop their own personality, human quality, and intellectual talent, to the best of their ability to satisfy the personal needs as well as the needs of the society. The Human Rights have its roots in different forms since, the time immemorial , Likewise from the  period of Plato (427 -348 B.C.), Aristotle (384-322B.C.), Cicero (106-43B.C.), Sophocles (495 – 406 B.C.), St .Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), and finally in Magna Carta(1215) ,but substantially, Human Rights got recent origin more specifically in the 20th Century.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. The rights which protect them and aware from lows its called human rights”

Morsink, Johannes (1999)

D. Basu defines human rights as “Those minimum rights, which every individual must have against the state or other public authority by virtue of his being a member of human family, irrespective of any other consideration”.

Significant numbers of the world’s population are routinely subject to torture, starvation, terrorism, humiliation, mutilation, and even murder simply because they are female. Crimes such as these against any group other than women would be recognized as a civil and political emergency as well as a gross violation of the victim’s humanity. Yet, despite a clear record of deaths and demonstrable abuse, women’s are not commonly classified as human rights. This is problematic both theoretically and practically, because it has grave consequences for the way society views and treats the fundamental issues of women’s lives.

Women’s human rights are violated in a variety of ways. Of course, women sometimes suffer abuses such as political repression in ways that are similar to abuses suffered by men. In these situations, female victims are often invisible because the dominant image of the political actor in our world is male. However, many violations of women’s human rights are distinctly connected to being female—that is, women are discriminated against and abused on the basis of gender. Women also experience sexual abuse in situations where their other human rights are being violated, as political prisoners or members of persecuted ethnic groups for example. In this paper I address those abuses in which gender is a primary or related factor because gender-related abuse has been most neglected and offers the greatest challenge to the field of human rights today.

The concept of human rights is one of the few moral visions subscribed to internationally. Although its scope is not universally agreed upon, it strikes deep chords of response among many. Promotion of human rights is a widely accepted goal and thus provides a useful framework for seeking redress of gender abuse. Further, it is one of the few concepts that speak to the need for transnational activism and concern about the lives of people globally. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted in 1948 symbolizes this world vision and defines human rights broadly. (Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10th Dec. 1948). While not much is said about women, Article 2 entities all to “the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.” Eleanor Roosevelt and the Latin American women, who fought for the inclusion of sex in the Declaration and for its passage, clearly intended that it would address the problems of women’s subordination. (Cook and Crapol (1987),  Ashworth (1986).)

Aims of the study:

  1. To study the human right awareness among the women victims of domestic violence in urban and rural area.
  2. To study the human right awareness among the government and non-government institute related women victims of domestic violence.
  3. To study the human right awareness among the low and high educated women victims of domestic violence.
  4. To study the interaction effect between types of area and types of institute on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence.
  5. To study the interaction effect between types of area and education level on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence.
  6. To study the interaction effect between types of institute and education level on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence.
  7. To study the interaction effect between types of area, types of institute and education level on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence.

Hypothesis:

  1. There is no difference between the human right awareness of urban and rural areas women victims of domestic violence.
  2. There is no difference between the human right awareness of government and non-government institute related women victims of domestic violence.
  3. There is no difference between the human right awareness of low and high educated women victims of domestic violence.
  4. There is no interaction effect of the types of area and types of institutes on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence.
  5. There is no interaction effect of the types of area and education level on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence.
  6. There is no interaction effect of the types of institute and education level on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence.
  7. There is no interaction effect of the types of area, types of institutes and education level on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence.

METHOD:

Research design:

This research was adopted 2x2x2 factorial design with 2 types of areas (urban and rural), 2 types of institutes (government and non-government) and 2 types of education level (low and high).

2x2x2, N=360

 

 

Urban

(A1)

Rural

(A2)

Variables →

Government Institute (B1)Non government Institute (B2)Government Institute (B1)Non government Institute (B2)
Low Education(C1)45454545
High Education(C2)45454545

Sample:

The aim and object of this research is to study of human right awareness among the women victims of domestic violence. For this purpose, areas of North and Central Gujarat were selected. For this research 360 victim women of domestic violence would be selected as a sample from selected government and non-government institutes of urban and rural areas of North Gujarat and Central Gujarat by random system. Out of which 180 would be urban areas women and 180 rural areas women. Out of which 90 would be government institutes related women and 90 would be non government institutes related women. From each of these 90 women 45 low and 45 high educated women would take.

Tools:

For this research to collect the required information following tools was used…

Personal Data Sheet:

Certain personal information about respondents included in the sample of research is useful and important for research. Here also, for collecting such important information, personal data sheet was prepared. With the help of this personal data sheet, the information about types of area, types of institutes and education level, etc were collected.

Human Right Awareness Scale:

Human right awareness scale developed by Vishal Sood and Arti Anand, (2012). The test consists 50 items in three dimensions—I. Knowledge about human rights documents, II. Knowledge and understanding about human rights concepts, III. Understanding about situation involving human right violation / non-violations. This test was administered on 420 respondent of different age ranging from 18 to 45 years.

As the present test was intended to measure awareness level of individuals about human right, so it was decided to develop the questions/statements accordingly. Which require answer on a three alternatives viz., True, Undecided and False. Further both types of positive and negative questions/statements were developed along with their scoring key.

Reliability:

The test-retest reliability of the scale is 0.67 and the Split-half Reliability is (every half of the test) 0.58 respectively.

Validity:

The Intrinsic validity measured by split-half method and it was shown coefficient 0.73. it was also fairy high and ensured intrinsic validity of this test.

Statistical Analysis:

ANOVA test was used to get information about human right awareness with reference to types of area, types of institute and education level.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION:

Human right awareness with reference to types of area, types of institute and education level of the women victims of domestic violence:

The objective was to study of human right awareness with reference to types of area, types of institute and education level of the women victims of domestic violence. In this context, 7 null hypotheses (No.1 to 7) were constructed. For this purpose 2x2x2 factorial design was framed. To examine these null hypotheses, statistical techniques of three ways ANOVA was used. The results obtained are presented in table 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 and 5.4

The result according to 2x2x2 factorial design, Mean and SD of types of area, types of institute and education level with reference to human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence is present in table no.5.1

Table No. 1 (N=360) Mean and SD of human right awareness with reference to types of area, types of institute and education level of the women victims of domestic violence.

 

Types of area

 

Types of institute

 

Mean, SD and n

Education level

Low

High

 

 

 

Urban

 

Government

 

Mean61.7361.76
SD10.618.13
n4545
 

Non-government

 

Mean65.8966.18
SD7.467.11
n4545
 

 

 

Rural

 

Government

 

Mean59.7651.44
SD9.8710.23
n4545
 

Non-government

Mean57.1861.27
SD7.877.36
n4545

The result according to 2x2x2 factorial design, ANOVA of types of area, types of institute and education level with reference to human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence is present in table no.5.2

Table No. 5.2 (N=360) ANOVA summary of human right awareness with reference to types of area, types of institute and education level of the women victims of domestic violence.

Source of varianceSum of squaresdfMean sum of squaresF
Types of area (A)3776.5413776.5450.10**
Types of institute (B)1408.1811408.1818.68**
Education level (C)86.04186.041.14 NS
AXB10.00110.000.13 NS
AXC115.601115.601.53 NS
BXC902.501902.5011.97**
AXBXC828.101828.1010.99**
Error (SSW)26532.9335275.38 
Total (SST)33659.90359  
Level of significance : **P>0.01, NS=Not significant

The result according to 2x2x2 factorial design, Mean and Difference of mean of human right awareness with reference to types of area, types of institute and education level of women victims of domestic violence is present in table no.5.3

Table No. 5.3 (N=360) Mean and difference between mean score of human right awareness with reference to types of area, types of institute and education level of the women victims of domestic violence.

Independent VariablesNMeanDifference between mean
Urban18063.89 

6.48

Rural18057.41
Government18058.67 

3.95

Non-government 18062.62
Low education18061.14 

0.98

High education18060.16

1: Human right awareness with reference to urban and rural area of the women victims of domestic violence:-

To study about there is significant difference or not between human right awareness of urban and rural areas women victims of domestic violence, null hypothesis no. 1 was constructed.

The F value of types of area of women (table no.5.2) is 50.10. According the log table the F value is 3.86 (0.05 level) and 6.70 (0.01 level) so the present value is statistically significant at 0.01 level. When check the difference between the human right awareness of urban and rural areas women victims of domestic violence by F test, significant F value was found.  Table 5.3 reveals that the mean scores of human right awareness of urban and rural areas women victims of domestic violence are 63.89 and 57.41 respectively and the difference between two is 6.48 which is high and not negligible. Hence the null hypothesis No.1 is rejected and it is conclude that, there is significant difference between the human right awareness of urban and rural areas women victims of domestic violence. The urban areas women possess high human right awareness than the rural areas woman. This finding contradicts the findings of Padmavathy and Pallai (2015), Dhamija and Sushanta, (2006) and in support with the finding of Kaur (2006). This difference can also be seen from figure (graph) No. 1 designed on the basis of obtained results.

Not surely but to give a possible reasons of this findings it can says that, Urban area’s women victims have higher awareness regarding human rights, the main cause of that may be the influences of news and media. The difference relationship with husband, peer groups and neighbourhood’s may have affected the knowledge and awareness of human rights. Urban women have seen much active in with different Sakhi mandal that may lead them to have more awareness about their basic rights. Also it may be possible that if they doing a job so the environment and relationship with other people at workplace and the awareness about basic rights of the other peoples are affect on them.

Graph No. 1 Chart Showing Mean Scores of Human Right Awareness with reference to urban and rural areas women victims of domestic violence.

X = Types of area (urban A1and rural A2)

Y= 1.00 Sem. = 10 Average Score

2: Human right awareness with reference to government and non-government institute related women victims of domestic violence:-

To study about there is significant difference or not between human right awareness of government and non-government institute related women victims of domestic violence, null hypothesis no. 2 was constructed.

When F test was applied to check the difference between the human right awareness of government and non-government institute related women victims of domestic violence, significant F value was found. The F value (table no.5.2) is 18.68 and which is statistically significant at 0.01 levels. Table 5.3 reveals that the mean scores of human right awareness of government and non-government institutes related women victims of domestic violence are 58.67 and 62.62 respectively and the difference between two is 3.95 which is high and not negligible. Hence the null hypothesis No.2 is rejected and it is conclude that, there is significant difference between the human right awareness of government and non-government institute related women victims of domestic violence. The non-government institute related women possess more human right awareness than the government institute related women. This difference can also be seen from figure (graph) No. 2 designed on the basis of obtained result.

To give possible reasons of this finding it can says that, Non-government Institutes are one of them who have higher human rights awareness in their related women victims of domestic violence. It can be said that the working pattern and structure of these Institutes can affect in term of interpersonal contacts with women victims .Non government institutes may give more time, understating and opportunities. They may give effective awareness programs The term non-governmental or, more accurately non-profit is normally used to cover the range of Institutes are characterized, in general, by having as the purpose of their existence something other than financial profit.

Graph No. 2 Chart Showing Mean Scores of human right awareness with reference to government and non-government institute related women victims of domestic violence.

X = Types of institute (government B1and non-government B2)
Y= 1.00 Sem. = 10 Average Score

3: Human right awareness with reference to low and high education level of the women victims of domestic violence:-

To study about there is significant difference or not between human right awareness of low and high educated women victims of domestic violence, null hypothesis no. 3 was constructed.

In first sight to show the mean of education level it seen that, there is significant difference between human right awareness of low and high educated women victims of domestic violence. But when check the F value in table no.5.2, the F value is 1.14 and it is negligible. It’s not significant at any level. Also show the table no.5.3, the mean scores of human right awareness of low and high educated women victims of domestic violence are 61.14 and 60.16 respectively and the difference between two is 0.98 which is also very negligible. Hence the null hypothesis No.3 is maintained and it is conclude that there is no significant difference between the human right awareness of low and high educated women victims of domestic violence. This finding contradicts the findings of Bhagat and Kumari, K., (2011) at some level.

4: Human right awareness with reference to interaction effect of types of area and types of institute of the women victims of domestic violence:

To check the interaction effect of types of area and types of institute on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence null hypothesis no. 4 was framed.

To show the table no 5.2 the F value of interaction between types of area and types of institute is 0.13 which is statistically not significant because it is not significant at any level. When check the interaction effect of types of area and types of institute (AXB) on human right awareness, no significant effect found. Hence the null hypothesis 4 was maintained and it is conclude that there is no significant interaction effect of types of area and types of institute on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence.

5: Human right awareness with reference to interaction effect of types of area and education level of the women victims of domestic violence:

To check the interaction effect of types of area and education level on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence null hypothesis no. 5 was framed.

To check the null hypothesis, F test was applied. The F value of interaction between types of area and education level (table no 5.2) is 1.53 which is statistically not significant. So interaction effect of types of area and education level (AXC) on human right awareness no significant impact found. Hence the null hypothesis 5 was maintained and it is conclude that there is no significant interaction effect of types of area and education level on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence.

Table No. 4 (N=360) Mean score of human right awareness with reference to interaction effect of types of institute and education level of the women victims of domestic violence.

Independent

Variables →

            

Mean and n 

Low

 

High

Government

 

Mean60.7556.60
n9090
Non-government

 

 

Mean61.5463.73
n9090

Graph No. 3 Chart showing mean score of human right awareness with reference to interaction effect of types of institute and education level of the women victims of domestic violence.

X = Types of institute (Government B1and Non-government B2)

 Education level (Low C1and High C2)

Y= 1.00 Sem. = 10 Average Score

6: Human right awareness with reference to interaction effect of types of institute and education level of the women victims of domestic violence:

To check the interaction effect of types of institute and education level on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence null hypothesis no. 6 was framed.

According to table no.5.2 the F value (11.97) shows significant interaction effect of types of institute and education level on human right awareness of women. The F value is statistically significant at 0.01 level so the null hypothesis 6 is rejected and it is conclude that there is significant interaction effect of types of institute and education level on human right awareness of women victims of domestic violence. The Table no.5.4 and graph No.3 also indicate that the significant interaction effect of types of institute and education level (BXC) on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence.

7: Human right awareness with reference to interaction effect of types of area, types of institute and education level of the women victims of domestic violence:

To check the interaction effect of types of area and types of institute and education level on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence null hypothesis no. 7 was framed.

To show the table no.5.2 the F value of human right awareness with reference to interaction between types of area, types of institute and education level (AXBXC) is 10.99 found. The value is statistically significant at 0.01 level. Hence the null hypothesis 7 is rejected and it is conclude that there is significant interaction effect of types of area, types of institute and education level on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence.

CONCLUSION:

  1. There is significant difference between the human right awareness of urban and rural areas women victims of domestic violence. The urban areas women possess high human right awareness than the rural areas woman.
  2. There is significant difference between the human right awareness of government and non-government institute related women victims of domestic violence. The non-government institute related women possess more human right awareness than the government institute related women.
  3. There is no significant difference between the human right awareness of low and high educated women victims of domestic violence.
  4. There is no significant interaction effect of the types of area and types of institutes on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence.
  5. There is no significant interaction effect of the types of area and education level on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence.
  6. There is significant interaction effect of types of institute and education level on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence.
  7. There is significant interaction effect of types of area, types of institute and education level on human right awareness of the women victims of domestic violence.

The authors profoundly appreciate all the people who have successfully contributed in ensuring this paper is in place. Their contributions are acknowledged however their names cannot be able to be mentioned.

The authors declare this paper to bear not a conflict of interests

This is an Open Access Research distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any Medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Responding Author Information

Sunil S. Jadav @ jadavsm@yahoo.co.in

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Human right awareness: a comparative study of urban and rural areas women victims of domestic violence

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Article Overview

ISSN 2348-5396

ISSN 2349-3429

DIP: 18.02.006/20160101

DOI: 10.25215/2455/0101006

Published in

Volume 01, Issue 1, January - March, 2016

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