Comparative Study

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Professionally employed women and homemakers on self-esteem and self-efficacy

" data-original-title="Gopal B. Bharvad">Gopal B. Bharvad

DIP: 18.02.003/20160101

DOI: 10.25215/2455/0101003

Received: January 06, 2016; Revision Received: February 16, 2016; Accepted: March 25, 2016

Abstract

In the present study the working women were high on self esteem and self efficacy than homemakers. Thus the findings of the present study do not support the null hypothesis as significant difference was found between the two groups.  The present findings are consistent with the earlier study conducted by (Sachdeva and Malhotra. (2001) which reported that work enhances the self esteem of women. Higher self-esteem among working women as compared to homemakers could be due to the fact that these women would have something positive (such as higher status and economic independence) in an opportunity to work outside the home. A feeling of contributing to the welfare of their families as well as society might enhance their self-esteem. Also the current findings on self efficacy are similar to the results obtained by Park (2000). He revealed that professional working women have higher gratification then housewives. Working women or women belonging to low socio-economic level and having non-professional career had less support from husband, and did not have any person for helping them and had to work long hours daily and had less efficacy. Park (2000) stated that professional women enjoyed more in their job and had feeling of worthiness.

INTRODUCTION:

Self Esteem was first coined by William James in 1890. In psychology, self esteem or self worth refers to a person’s subjective appraisal of himself or herself as intrinsically positive or negative (Sedikides & Gregg, 2003). Healthy self-esteem is based on our ability to assess ourselves accurately (know ourselves) and still be able to accept and to value ourselves unconditionally. This means being able to realistically, acknowledge our strengths and limitations (which is part of being human) and at the same time accepting ourselves as worthy and worthwhile without conditions or reservations. (Jhonson1991).

Self-Efficacy has been found to be intimately associated with capacity to change one’s situation and has been used as a predictor of behaviour, usually job seeking behaviour,(Wenzel, 1993). The construct of self-efficacy, which was introduced by Bandura, represents one core aspect of his social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1977, 1997). According to Albert Bandura, self-efficacy is “the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations” (1995).

Today women have entered diverse fields, attained success and gained popularity. In many cases, women have taken up professional roles either to contribute economically to the family or to make their lives more meaningful. Economic independence, developing self-respect & dignity and getting rid of household drudgery are some of the important factors motivating women for joining various types of jobs (Saxena, 2001). Increasingly, women are becoming an essential part of the labour force and they are the prime source of income (WHO, 1995).

REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

Sahu and Rath (2003) conducted a study on self-efficacy and wellbeing in working and non-working women. The sample consisted of 120 working and 120 non-working women. Results indicated that working women’s had higher self-efficacy and well being compared to non-working women.

Azar and Vasudeva (2006) conducted a study on 250 married unemployed and 250 married employed women in the age range of 24-41 years in Iran .The general self- efficacy scale and the Cooper smith Self –Esteem Scale was chosen for collection of data. Results showed that professionally employed women were found to be significantly higher on self-Efficacy and self-esteem than unemployed and non-professionally employed women.

Jain and Gunthey (2001) had studied 120 working and 120 non-working women of age range 25-45 years. Tools used were mental health checklist by Kumar and Problems check list by Joshi and Pandey. Results revealed that both groups differ significantly in mental health.

Betoret (2006) studied the self-efficacy, coping resources and burnout among secondary school teacher in Spain. The total sample consists of 247, of which 130 are males and 117 are females with the age range of 20-50years. The results revealed that teachers with high level of self-efficacy and more coping resources experienced less stress and burnout than teachers with a low level of self-efficacy and fewer coping resources and vice versa.

OBJECTIVES

The present study was, hence, undertaken with the following objectives.

  1. To study the self esteem among employed women and housewives.
  2. To study the self efficacy among employed women and housewives.

 Hypothesis

  1. There is no significant difference between self esteem of employed women and housewives.
  2. There is no significant difference between self efficacy of employed women and housewives.

METHODOLOGY

Sample

A random sampling technique was used for the selection of the sample. The total study sample consisted of 70 married employed and housewives in the age range of 25-55 years. The first sub sample consisted of 35 married employed women working in different organizations in Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat ,belonging to lower, middle, and upper socio-economic status groups, with educational qualification of 10+2 and above and having at least one school going child. The second sub-sample consisted of 35 homemakers living in Vallabh Vidyanagar in Gujarat.

Procedure

Data collection was carried out while visiting the residence and organization where employed women work.. At the initial phase the purpose of study was explained and willingness to participate in the study was sought while emphasizing that the participation in study was not binding and the participant was free to decline and withdraw from the study any time. It was made clear to the participants that no monetary benefits will be given. After seeking the consent to participate, suitable day and time was asked.

Tools

Following psychometric tools were employed to assess the extent level of the variables included in this study-:

Socio-demographic record sheet: Socio- demographic sheet was developed for the study which included name, age, education, and occupation.

Self- Esteem Scale:

It has been developed by Rosenberg (1965). The scale consists of 10 self-report items dealing with a person’s general belief about himself. Each item is answered on a four-point Likert scale – from strongly agree (3) to strongly disagree (0). Five items are reverse scored – from strongly disagree (3) to strongly agree (0). Test – retest correlation are typically in the range of 0.82 to 0.88 and Cronbach’s alpha for various samples are in the range of 0.77 to 0.88

The General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) -:

The scale in German Language was developed in 1979 by Jerusalem and Schwarzer and later revised and adapted to 26 other languages including English and Persian by various co authors .The scale was developed to assess a general sense of perceived self-efficacy with the aim in mind to predict coping with daily hassles as well as adaptation after experiencing all kinds of stressful life events. The scale is designed for the general adult population, including adolescents. Persons below the age of 12 should not be tested. The scale is usually self-administered, as part of a more comprehensive questionnaire. The scale has 10 items with 4 point scale, ranging from 1 to 4 (1=not at all true), (2=hardly true), (3=moderately true), to (4= exactly true). Responses to all the 10 items have to be summed up to yield the final composite score with a range from 10 to 40. In samples from 23 nations, Cronbach’s alphas ranged from 0.76 to 0.90, with the majority in the higher range of 0.80. The scale is uni dimensional. Criterion-related validity is documented in numerous co relational studies where positive coefficients were found with favourable emotions, dispositional optimism, and work satisfaction. Negative coefficient was found with depression, anxiety, stress, burnout, and health complaints.

Data analysis

Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. t- test analysis was used to find out the difference between working women and housewives on self esteem and self efficacy.

RESULTS

Table 1: Independent t-test results on self esteem and self efficacy:

Variables 

Group

N    MeanStandard Deviation“t”
Self esteem

 

Working women3525.254.076.00**
Homemakers3518.575.18
Self efficacy.

 

Working women3532.315.404.75**
Homemakers3524.518.07

*Significant at .05/ ** significant at .01

Graph 1:

The present study was conducted to find out the differences among working women and homemakers on self esteem and self efficacy. Table 1 shows the independent t-test results on self esteem and self efficacy.

Table 1: Shows the mean scores, S.D and t-value obtained for self esteem and self- efficacy between working women and homemakers. A glance at Table shows that employed women are significantly higher on self esteem (t= 6.00, P< .01) and self efficacy. (t= 4.75, P<.01).

DISCUSSION

The results of the present study on self-efficacy and self-esteem revealed that the two groups of women (working women and homemakers) differ significantly on self efficacy, and self esteem. . Bandura (1997) and Flammer (1990) found that individuals with high self-efficacy beliefs also report strong feelings of well-being and high self-esteem in general.

In the present study the working women were high on self esteem and self efficacy than homemakers. Thus the findings of the present study do not support the null hypothesis as significant difference was found between the two groups.  The present findings are consistent with the earlier study conducted by (Sachdeva and Malhotra. (2001) which reported that work enhances the self esteem of women. Higher self-esteem among working women as compared to homemakers could be due to the fact that these women would have something positive (such as higher status and economic independence) in an opportunity to work outside the home. A feeling of contributing to the welfare of their families as well as society might enhance their self-esteem. Also the current findings on self efficacy are similar to the results obtained by Park (2000). He revealed that professional working women have higher gratification then housewives. Working women or women belonging to low socio-economic level and having non-professional career had less support from husband, and did not have any person for helping them and had to work long hours daily and had less efficacy. Park (2000) stated that professional women enjoyed more in their job and had feeling of worthiness.

People high on self-efficacy are competent to meet the challenges while achieving the goals, leading to success. Success, positive experiences and positive feedback do enhance self-esteem. In fact self-efficacy forms the basis of self-esteem (Bandura 1997).

IMPLICATIONS

  1. Women should be given freedom to voice their opinion in the process of decision making.
  2. Facilities , including restrooms, eating areas and recreational facilities should be there in the organizations
  3. Health and safety, including organizational procedures to deal with physical safety issues, hazards and other factors that may affect employee health.
  4. Gender, sexual and ethnic harassment sensitization should be promoted through media, workshops and training programs.
  5. Flexible working hours appear to be most appropriate for jobs such as research and development, and clerical data entry professionals.
  6. Salaries should be in accordance with the number of hours they put in the job.

CONCLUSION

In nutshell from the conduction of this study it becomes apparent that there exist significant differences on self esteem and self efficacy among working women and homemakers. The reason could be that work provides a woman with healthy self-esteem, self efficacy confidence, independence and satisfies her needs for social recognition, freedom, power and individuality.

The authors profoundly appreciate all the people who have successfully contributed in ensuring this paper is in place. Their contributions are acknowledged however their names cannot be able to be mentioned.

The authors declare this paper to bear not a conflict of interests

This is an Open Access Research distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any Medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Responding Author Information

Gopal B. Bharva @ [email protected]

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Professionally employed women and homemakers on self-esteem and self-efficacy

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Article Overview

ISSN 2348-5396

ISSN 2349-3429

DIP: 18.02.003/20160101

DOI: 10.25215/2455/0101003

Published in

Volume 01, Issue 1, January - March, 2016

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