Open Access



The Indus Valley Civilisation (Harappan Civilisation)

Dr. Hetalben Dhanabhai Sindhav

DIP: 18.02.011/20160102

DOI: 10.25215/2455/0102011

Received: February 12, 2016; Revision Received: April 20, 2016; Accepted: June 25, 2016


The Indus Valley Civilisation was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300–1300 BC; mature period 2600–1900 BC) mainly in northwest South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. Along with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilisations of the Old World, and of the three the most widespread. It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia, and along a system of perennial, mostly monsoon-fed, rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the seasonal Ghaggar-Hakra river in northwest India and eastern Pakistan.

At its peak, the Indus Civilisation may have had a population of over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft and metallurgy.

The Early Harappan Ravi Phase, named after the nearby Ravi River, lasted from circa 3300 BC until 2800 BC. It is related to the Hakra Phase, identified in the Ghaggar-Hakra River Valley to the west, and predates the Kot Diji Phase (2800–2600 BC, Harappan 2), named after a site in northern Sindh, Pakistan, near Mohenjo Daro.

The authors profoundly appreciate all the people who have successfully contributed to ensuring this paper in place. Their contributions are acknowledged however their names cannot be mentioned.

The author declared no conflict of interest.

This is an Open Access Research distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any Medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Dr. Hetalben Dhanabhai Sindhav @

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ISSN 2348-5396

ISSN 2349-3429

DIP: 18.02.011/20160102

DOI: 10.25215/2455/0102011

Published in

Volume 01, Issue 2, April - June, 2016

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