Comparative Study

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Peer-reviewed

Depression among working women, teachers and housewife of Anand

Vishal Parmar

DIP: 18.02.004/20160101

DOI: 10.25215/2455/0101004

Received: January 13, 2016; Revision Received: February 11, 2016; Accepted: March 25, 2016

Abstract

The aim of this study is to know the level of depression among working women, teachers and housewives.  Hence this study is important both theoretically and practically because it is empirically justified. In the present study, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is used.  This inventory was prepared by Beck Ward, Mendesion, Moch and Drbauge (1961). It is comprised of twenty-one items. Although the inventory was designed as a clinical instrument but in practice it is frequently used to dichotomise subjects into depressed and non-depressed groups. The present study focuses on whether depression in normal populations, as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory has the same effect among working women, teachers and housewives. This similarity is a prerequisite for interpreting BDI scores among these three groups. Further, hypotheses are tested about correlates of depression among all three groups.

INTRODUCTION:

Depression is a mood disorder characterized by symptoms such as changes in sleep, appetite, or weight, and psychomotor activities like decreased energy, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, difficulty in thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation, plans, or attempts. According to American Psychiatric Association, 1994, “Depression is a common and highly treatable disorder affecting over 17 million American adults annually. Once identified, depression can almost always be successfully treated either by psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both.” This paper presents a summary of self-report of the working women, teachers and housewives according to Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) which   is considered to be most relevant for the assessment of depression.

There are various studies done worldwide on the depression level among women in general. The study conducted by Brown (1998) in which he collected related data from various countries reported that there is strong correlation between the environmental factors such as irregular, disruptive events and depression. The study conducted by Revati R. Dudhatra & Yogesh A Jogsan (2012) on Mental Health and Depression among Working and Non-Working Women from Rajkot City (Gujarat) reveals that the mental health of working woman is lesser than non-working woman.  On the contrary, the studies conducted by Riaz. H. Soomro et al (2012) on Comparative Analysis of Depression among Housewives and Working Women in Bilal Colony of Kornagi Area Karachi reveals that the level of depression among the housewives was twice as much as that of working women. According to Khanna and Shirali (1989) depression was reported most often in non-working women.  Avecado Lopez and Fernandez (1993) concluded that employed mothers reported better mental health adjustment than their unemployed counter parts.

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of this study is to know the level of depression among working women, teachers and housewives.  Hence this study is important both theoretically and practically because it is empirically justified. The objectives of this empirical research are as follows:

  1. To find out the differences in the level of depression among working women, teachers and housewives of Anand city (Gujarat).
  2. This study may help in developing new concept and theory in order to understand the level of depression among normal people.

Hypothesis:

There will be no significant difference in the mean scores of depression among working women, teachers and housewives of Anand city (Gujarat).

Tools of the Study:

In the present study Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is used.  This inventory was prepared by Beck Ward, Mendesion, Moch and Drbauge (1961). It is comprised of twenty one items. Although the inventory was designed as a clinical instrument but in practice it is frequently used to dichotomise subjects into depressed and non-depressed groups. The present study focuses on whether depression in normal populations, as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory has the same effect among working women, teachers and housewives. This similarity is a prerequisite for interpreting BDI scores among these three groups. Further, hypotheses are tested about correlates of depression among all three groups.

Limitations of the Study:

  • This study is confined only to 100 women.
  • Even though, many factors influence the depression, the present study measures the level of depression among thirty working women, thirty teachers and forty housewives of Anand city according to Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) comprised of twenty one items.

Procedure:

Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered to the selected subjects.  The total scores of working women, teachers and housewives were analysed statically and ANNOVA was applied to check the significance.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

In the Beck Depression Inventory the higher scores resents greater level of depression. In other words level of scores directly varies with the level of depression. The highest possible total for the whole test would be sixty-three and the lowest possible score for the test would be zero. A persistent score of seventeen or above indicates that one may need medical treatment.

Total ScoreLevels of Depression
1-10These ups and downs are considered normal
11-16Mild mood disturbance
17-20Borderline clinical depression
21-30Moderate depression
31-40Severe depression
over 40Extreme depression

Table No. 1, Generable Table According To Variables:

Working women= 1
Teachers

Housewives

= 2

= 3

 

GROUP STATISTICS:

TOTAL:
 NMeanStd. DeviationStd. Error95% Confidence Interval for MeanMinimumMaximum
Lower BoundUpper Bound
1307.277.3721.3464.5110.02025
2305.275.4831.0013.227.31022
3409.256.3961.0117.2011.30024
Total1007.466.603.6606.158.77025

From the above table no.1, it is observed that the mean score of working women is 7.27 with SD 7.37 while the mean score of housewives is 9.25 with SD 6.396 and the mean score of teachers is 5.27 with SD 5.43. The overall average is 7.46 with SD 6.60.

Table No. 2: ANOVA
TOTAL:
 Sum of SquaresdfMean SquareFSig.
Between Groups273.6072136.8033.282.042
Within Groups4043.2339741.683  
Total4316.84099   

After the analysis of the data, in the above table no. 2, ANOVA was applied to check the significance.  The finding reveals that there is significant difference between groups. That mean all the three groups differ significantly in the level of depression. The teachers seem to be experiencing least level of depression because they find job satisfaction more than other working women.

POST HOC TESTS:

Table No. 3: Multiple Comparisons

Dependent Variable: TOTAL:
 (I) Category(J) CategoryMean Difference (I-J)Std. ErrorSig.95% Confidence Interval
 Lower BoundUpper Bound
LSDdimension21dimension322.0001.667.233-1.315.31
3-1.9831.559.206-5.081.11
2dimension31-2.0001.667.233-5.311.31
3-3.983*1.559.012-7.08-.89
3dimension311.9831.559.206-1.115.08
23.983*1.559.012.897.08
Tamhanedimension21dimension322.0001.677.558-2.136.13
3-1.9831.683.567-6.122.16
2dimension31-2.0001.677.558-6.132.13
3-3.983*1.423.020-7.47-.50
3dimension311.9831.683.567-2.166.12
23.983*1.423.020.507.47
*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.

If we go in further details in table no.3, it is observed that there is significant difference between teachers and housewives. The depression level of housewives is significantly higher than that of teachers. The teachers are found to be less depressed than other two groups.  When we examine each question within the test, the housewives develop more pessimistic attitude towards their life because their work is not acknowledged by their own family members.  Hence they feel a lack of warmth to close relatives, family members and friends that makes them more agitated.  Some of the housewives even experience more tiredness or fatigue.  They are not able to take any decisions because they are not economically independent.   The economic insecurity makes them to feel worthlessness. They also feel guilty most of the time. The working women find changes in their sleeping patterns.  They seem to wake up 1-2 hours earlier than usual and find it hard to get back to sleep. Since they have to balance family responsibility and office work, they find changes in their appetite resulting low energy and poor concentration. This also makes them worry about the physical problems like aches, pains, upset stomach, or constipation.

CONCLUSION:

On the basis of the present research, the following conclusions may be drawn:

  1. The obtained mean scores indicates that the level of depression among working women, teachers and housewives differ significantly. Hence the null hypothesis will be rejected indicating that there is significant difference among the groups.
  2. The depression level of housewives is significantly higher than that of teachers.

The authors profoundly appreciate all the people who have successfully contributed in ensuring this paper is in place. Their contributions are acknowledged however their names cannot be able to be mentioned.

The authors declare this paper to bear not a conflict of interests

This is an Open Access Research distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any Medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Responding Author Information

Vishal Parmar @ parmarvishal798@gmail.com

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Depression among working women, teachers and housewife of Anand

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Article Overview

ISSN 2348-5396

ISSN 2349-3429

DIP: 18.02.004/20160101

DOI: 10.25215/2455/0101004

Published in

Volume 01, Issue 1, January - March, 2016

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